As one of the primary divisions of the sciatic nerve, the common fibular nerve has an essential role in the lower limb. It has a superficial course as it runs around the neck of the fibula, and is vulnerable to crush injury here. The common fibular nerve (ventral rami L4-S3) is a branch of the sciatic nerve (ventral rami L4-S3). The nerve innervates the muscles of the anterior and lateral compartments of the leg, and sensation over the lateral leg.
The common fibular nerve (also known as the common peroneal nerve) is a branch of the sciatic nerve (L4-S3), which divides above the popliteal fossa to also give the tibial nerve. The sciatic nerve arises from the sacral plexus, and descends down the posterior surface of the thigh. The tibial nerve innervates all the muscles of the posterior thigh and leg. Once the common fibular nerve branches from the sciatic nerve, it then turns laterally to wraps around the neck of the fibula. It also gives off a small communicating branch that combines with a reciprocal communicating branch from the tibial nerve. The combined nerves form the sural nerve, which supplies sensation to the lateral leg and dorsal surface of the fifth toe.
Once the nerve had wrapped around the fibular neck, it then divides into the deep branch and the superficial branch. The deep branch supplies the anterior compartment of the leg (tibialis anterior- an ankle dorsiflexor and invertor, extensor digitorum longus- a toe extensor and ankle dorsiflexor, extensor hallucis longus- an extensor of the large toe). The superficial branch supplies the lateral compartment of the leg i.e. fibularis longus, and brevis, which function as evertors of the ankle. The nerve also supplies sensation to the anterior and lateral surface of the leg, above the sural nerve.
Precursor- Alar and Basal Plate of nerves L4-S3
Origin- Ventral rami of L4-S3
Branches- Deep fibular, superficial fibular and sural
Muscles supplied- Fibularis longus, fibularis brevis, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus
Dermatome- Lateral and anterior surface of the leg, above the sural nerve
The common fibular nerve (ventral rami L4-S3) is a branch of the sciatic nerve (ventral rami L4-S3). The nerve innervates the muscles of the anterior and lateral compartments of the leg, and sensation over the lateral leg.